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アメリカの懐疑主義者の雑誌、Skeptic誌で「血液型と性格」 [新聞・雑誌]

アメリカの懐疑主義者の雑誌、Skeptic誌で「血液型と性格」が取り上げられていることを発見しました。
残念ながら、英語圏の情報しか調べてないようですね…。

Buckner, Rebecca Anders, and John E. Buckner, V. "It's not in your blood: exploring claims that blood type and personality are linked." Skeptic [Altadena, CA], vol. 19, no. 3, 2014, p. 24+

skptic2014s.png

記事の結論は次の通りです。

私たちの知見
完了した調査は、182名のボランティア(男性97名、女性85名)の参加者から収集され、O型56.0%、A型30.2%、B型10.4%、AB型3.8%で、ほぼアメリカ人の平均を示している。 我々の分析結果(MANOVAまたはMultivariate Analysis of Variance)は、5つの広範な性格特性[ビッグファイブ]と血液型との間に全体的な関係を示さなかった。
したがって、これらの知見は、血液型が性格に関係していないという主張を支持する。
Completed surveys were collected from 182 volunteers [29] (97 male, 85 female), and participants formed a fair representation of blood types in the U.S. -- 56.0% type O, 30.2% type A, 10.4% type B, and 3.8% type AB. [30] Results of our analysis (MANOVA or Multivariate Analysis of Variance) [31] showed no overall relationship between the five broad personality characteristics and blood type. [32]
Therefore, these findings support the contention that blood type is NOT related to personality.

このことは、まさに心理学の限界を示しているのですが、さすがにアメリカでもそうは言えないんでしょうね。

面白いのは、アメリカでも「血液型」と性格の話題が徐々に知られるようになってきたということです。以下は、記事の要約からの抜粋です。

この主張[血液型と性格]は広く普及しており、世界の特定の地域、すなわち日本で受け入れられている。 この信念は、最近、人気のある書籍、「答はあなたの血液型」[Steven M. Weissberg & Joseph Christiano: The Answer is in Your Blood Type]に書かれているような主張を通じて、米国でも(再)紹介されている。
This claim is widespread and largely accepted in certain parts of the globe, namely Japan. This belief is also being (re)introduced in the U.S. more recently through popular books and claims such as those outlined in The Answer is in Your Blood Type.

《記事の抜粋》

Our Study
We examined personality using the Five-Factor model, which is a widely used and accepted personality framework in psychology [25] and has been used frequently in recent "blood type personality" research.
25 省略

Our Findings
Completed surveys were collected from 182 volunteers [29] (97 male, 85 female), and participants formed a fair representation of blood types in the U.S. -- 56.0% type O, 30.2% type A, 10.4% type B, and 3.8% type AB. [30] Results of our analysis (MANOVA or Multivariate Analysis of Variance) [31] showed no overall relationship between the five broad personality characteristics and blood type. [32]
Therefore, these findings support the contention that blood type is NOT related to personality.
29 The number of participants we used provided us with enough power to detect the expected effect (moderate effect size), based on an A PRIORI power analysis.
30 The typical frequency of blood types in the U.S. can be found in multiple sources. We referred to : http://bloodcenter.stanford.edu/about_blood/blood_types.html
31 The results of MANOVA were F(15,522)=1.48, p=.11
32 We referred to Box's Test of equality of covariances between the sizes of relationships among personality factors based on blood type.

取り上げられている肯定側の主な文献
・Toshitaka Nomi and Alexader Bessher: You Are Your Blood Type
・Peter Constantine: What's Your Type?: How Blood Types are the Keys to Unlocking Your Personality

《記事の要約》

Abstract
Some believe that our blood type – O, A, B, AB – can tell us a lot about ourselves, such as our compatibility with different romantic partners or even our satisfaction with different careers choices. One of the most prominent claims of ‘blood type’ proponents is that blood type is intimately linked to personality – it determines our most core and pervasive characteristics. This claim is widespread and largely accepted in certain parts of the globe, namely Japan. This belief is also being (re)introduced in the U.S. more recently through popular books and claims such as those outlined in The Answer is in Your Blood Type. Unfortunately, proponents present little evidence for their claims and the ‘studies’ they do present often contain glaring methodological flaws. Though the ‘blood type personality’ claim has been previously examined by scientists, research findings are unclear. The results of our own investigation, presented here, suggest that blood type and personality are likely unrelated. Though the ‘blood type personality’ claim may seem harmless, there are real consequences for those truly believing their personality and – by extension – behavior is determined by their blood type. This type of thinking can reduce one’s motivation and self-perception, resulting in abandoned aspirations and scapegoating.
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