In Japan, a person's blood type is popularly believed to decide his/her temperament and personality. Type-A people are generally considered sensitive perfectionists and good team players, but over-anxious. Type Os are curious and generous but stubborn. Type ABs are artistic but mysterious and unpredictable, and type Bs are cheerful but eccentric, individualistic, and selfish. Though lacking scientific evidence, this belief is widely seen in books, magazines, and television shows.
The blood-type belief has been used in unusual ways. The women's softball team that won gold for Japan at the Beijing Olympics is reported to have used blood-type theories to customize training for each player. Some kindergartens have adopted teaching methods along blood group lines, and even major companies reportedly make decisions about assignments based on an employee's blood type. In 1990, Mitsubishi Electronics was reported to have announced the formation of a team composed entirely of AB workers, thanks to "their ability to make plans."
The belief even affects politics. One former prime minister considered it important enough to reveal in his official profile that he was a type A, while his opposition rival was type B. In 2011, a minister, Ryu Matsumoto, was forced to resign after only a week in office, when a bad-tempered encounter with local officials was televised. In his resignation speech, he blamed his failings on the fact that he was blood type B.
The blood-type craze, considered simply harmless fun by some Japanese, may manifest itself as prejudice and discrimination. In fact, this seems so common that the Japanese now have a term for it: bura-hara, meaning blood-type harassment. There are reports of discrimination leading to children being bullied, ending of happy relationships, and loss of job opportunities due to blood type.
41. What is the speaker’s attitude toward the blood-type belief in Japan?
(A) Negative. (B) Defensive. (C) Objective. (D) Encouraging.
42. According to the examples mentioned in the passage, which blood type can we infer is the LEAST favored in Japan?
(A) Type A. (B) Type B. (C) Type O. (D) Type AB.
43. Why did Prime Minister Ryu Matsumoto resign from office?
(A) He revealed his rival’s blood type.
(B) He was seen behaving rudely on TV.
(C) He blamed his failings on local officials.
(D) He was discriminated against because of blood type.
44. Which field is NOT mentioned in the passage as being affected by blood-type beliefs?
(A) Education. (B) Sports. (C) Business. (D) Medicine.