韓国の消費者調査では差は出なかった [論文]


クワン・ホーソク(Kwan Ho Suk), チ・ウンクー(Ji Eun Koo)
韓国消費者協会, <消費者学研究> Vol.23 No.2(2012), pp.107-134


《要約》消費者の血液型に応じて、市場を細分化したり、製品を推薦する血液型マーケティングが頻繁に使われている。本研究では、このような血液型マーケティングが科学的な事実に基づいていているのかを検証しようとし、そのために消費者の購買決定プロセスに影響を与える個人の消費行動特性変数に焦点を合わせて、その変数が血液型と関連があるかどうか研究しようとする。消費者行動の研究によると、消費者の購買決定は5つの段階で構成され、欲求の認知、情報探索、代替の評価、購入、購入後の行動に行われる。消費者個人の特性変数は、(1)消費者の購買決定の各段階と関連性があるかどうか、(2)血液型の特性を反映することができるかどうかに基づいて選択された。その結果、欲求なのかの段階では、消費者の独特性欲求(need for uniqueness)、情報探索段階では、認知欲求(need for cognition)、代替案の評価の段階では、リスク追求(risk taking)性向、購入の段階では、衝動買い(impulse purchase)性向、購入後の行動の段階では、苦情行動(complaining behavior)が個人的な特性変数として選定された。事前調査では、血液型別の性格と血液型別の消費行動の特徴についての知識、それに対する信仰を測定した。その結果、血液型と性格との間の関係については、ほとんどの回答者が知っており、半分以上の回答者が実際に2変数間の関連性を信じていることが分かった。血液型と消費行動との間の関係についての知識や信念は、比較的弱いが、27%の回答者が血液型と消費行動の特性との間の関連性について、通常以上に認知し、37%の回答者が血液型と消費行動の特性の関連性について通常以上の信念を持っていることが分かった。事前調査では、また、独特性欲求、認知欲求、リスク追求傾向、衝動買いの傾向、不平行動のような消費行動がどのような血液型で最も多く表示されるかどうかの信頼(lay belief)を測定した。その結果、回答者は、それぞれの血液型は、特定の消費行動と密接に関連していることを強く信じていることが分かった。具体的には、AB型は独特性欲求が、A型は認知欲求が、B型の場合、リスク追求傾向、衝動買いの傾向、不平行動が明らかにされると信じていた。最初の実証研究では、大学生を対象に先立って選定し、個人の5つの消費行動の特性変数を測定した。分析の結果、血液型は消費行動の特性変数と関係がないことが分かった。5つの消費者の個人特性変数の両方の血液型による差を示さなかった。これは血液型と消費行動の間に有意な関係がないことを示す結果と見ることができる。第2の実証研究では、独特性欲求、認知欲求、リスク追求傾向、衝動買いの傾向を自己申告(self-report)ではなく、様々な選択の状況での消費者の意思決定を介して測定した。その結果、最初の研究と同様に、血液型による差はなかった。本研究の結果は、一般的な信念とは異なり、血液型と消費行動の間に有意な関係がないことを示した。

Market segmentation and product differentiation based on consumers' blood type is frequently practiced in Korea. For example, a fusion bar recommends different side dish menus to consumers with different blood type. This research investigates whether the blood type marketing is grounded by scientific evidence showing consumers behavior is related to blood type. This research examines associations between blood type and five dimensions of consumer behavior characericists that are related to consumer buying decision process. Research on consumer behavior has suggested that consumer decision making consists of five sequential decision stages: Need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase, and postpurchase behavior. We selected five consumer behavior characteristic variables that are related to each stage of the decision making process and are supposedly related to lay beliefs about the characteristics of blood type. Specifically, we selected need for uniqueness (need recognition), need for cognition (information search), risk taking (evaluation of alternatives), impulse buying (purchase), and complaining behavior (postpurchase behavior) that represent the buying decision process. This research examined whether the five consumer behavior measures are related to blood type. A pretest explored university students` knowledge and beliefs about the relationship between blood type and personality and the relationship between blood type and consumer behavior. Respondents were well aware of the personality characteristics of each blood type and more than half of the respondents believed that personality and blood type are related. Beliefs and knowledge about the relationship between blood type and consumer behavior were weaker compared with those of the relationship between blood type and personality. We also measured lay beliefs about which blood
type consumer is most likely to be related to need for uniqueness, need for cognition, risk taking, impulse buying, and complaining behavior. The results showed that the respondents have strong lay beliefs about the association between blood type and specific consumer behaviors. Respondents believed that need for uniqueness is most strongly related to blood type AB and be weakly related to blood type A or O. Need for cognition is strongly related to blood type A, but weakly related to other types. Consumers with blood type B are believed to be most likely to seek risk, buy with impulse, and complain after experiencing dissatisfaction. In sum, these findings suggest that people have stereotypes of blood type with respect to certain dimensions of consumer behavior. Study 1 examined the relationship between respondents' blood types and the five dimensions consumer behavior characteristics. In the study, respondents self reported their consumer behavior traits such as need for uniqueness, need for cognition, risk taking, impulse buying, and complaining behavior. We also manipulated the order in which ABO blood type is measured. In the ABO first condition, blood type was measured before measuring the five consumer behavior traits. In the ABO last condition, blood type was measured after the five consumer behavior measures. It was expected that, as gender stereotypes, measuring blood types first should activate blood type stereotypes, resulting in greater differences across blood types. The results of study 1 showed that blood type is not related to consumer behavior. For all the five consumer behavior measures, we found no significant differences across the consumers with different blood types. In addition, activation of blood type stereotype did not change the result. The findings of this study indicate that there is no significant relationship between blood type and individual difference characericists of consumption behavior. One shortcoming of Study 1 is that consumer behavior characteristics were measured by self-reports, which may not reflect actual consumer decisions. Therefore, we conducted Study 2 Study 2 further examined whether blood type is related to various consumer decisions that are related to need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, and purchase. Specifically we tested the relationship between consumers` blood type and purchase of unique options (i.e., need for uniqueness), decision making time (i.e., need for cognition), choice of risky option (i.e., risk taking), and impulse buying intention (impulse buying). Specifically we tested whether respondents' blood types were reslated to various consumer decision makings such as the extent to choose unique versus ordinary choice options, the amount of time taken to search for product information before making choice decisions, the likelihood of choosing risky over safe options, and their willingness to buy without planning in a given purchase situation. The results showed that blood type was not significantly related to these consumer decision makings In sum, the results of the current research demonstrate that consumers` blood types are not strongly related to consumer behavior, contrary to some beliefs that blood types are related to certain types of consumer behavior. However, future research using different methods (e.g., analyzing shopping data of different blood types) should present more compelling evidence regarding the association between blood type and consumer behavior. Another direction for future research is to test the influence of blood type marketing on consumer perception, attitude, and purchase behavior.

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